Perseverance Lands on Mars! Mars: NASA's spacecraft Perseverance explores traces of life on the Red Planet.

Bu yazı Hasan ERYILMAZ tarafından 19.02.2021 tarih ve 15:20 saatinde English kategorisine yazıldı. Perseverance Lands on Mars! Mars: NASA's spacecraft Perseverance explores traces of life on the Red Planet.

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Perseverance Lands on Mars! Mars: NASA's spacecraft Perseverance explores traces of life on the Red Planet.

You are reading this article after a few hours, according to NASA's turkey time and actually planning for 22:15 with the history of space exploration mission to Mars is the most advanced tool perseverence will be in Jezero Crater on Mars. Unless something goes wrong. We hope not, because Perseverence will actually live the hardest, most dramatic 7 minutes of its existence, as a result of years of work. An incredibly difficult landing process awaits us. We will all hold our breath and watch this. Yes. For the first time, if there is no problem, we will be able to see the landing moment with the cameras on the vehicle. Of course not alive. As there is a serious delay, NASA will collect the images and share them with us in a few days. If this challenging task succeeds, then Perseverence can send us breakthrough findings that will change history. The reason for this is the characteristics of the Jezero crater where it landed, its history and the biological remains that are likely to be found there. Let's take a look at this challenging task and what awaits us on this day of excitement.

NASA has a lot of experience in landing vehicles on Mars. He had previously successfully completed missions such as Curiosity, Opportunity and Insight. However, only 40% of the missions of different countries to land on Mars have been successful so far. Therefore, we are talking about this when we say that a very risky 7 minutes is waiting for us.

But let's first look at the details of this landing process, which NASA describes as a "7-minute horror movie", then let's talk about why the Jezero crater was chosen specifically and what we could find there.

Firstly.

After a 7-month calm journey, Perseverance must experience a serious slowdown from 20,000 kilometers per hour to the moment of landing after entering the atmosphere. The biggest obstacle to this is the very, very thin atmosphere of Mars. Of course, the vehicle will have a heat shield due to friction, but the parachute will not be sufficient for landing on its own because there is not enough friction due to the thin atmosphere.

 The biggest problem is that it takes about 11 minutes for radio signals to reach us from Mars. So when something goes wrong, it may be too late for us to intervene. So Perseverance has to do everything by himself.

Since there is no need for the protection part required for space travel in the first stage, it will leave the vehicle when it enters the atmosphere. After about 80 seconds, the temperature of the vehicle will peak and reach 1300 degrees. Small rockets at the top of the capsule will begin to regulate the landing angle at this time.

About 4 minutes after entering the atmosphere, the speed of the vehicle will drop to 1600 km per hour, 11 km above the surface. But still very fast of course. Therefore, a parachute with a diameter of about 20 meters will be opened.

At this point, the vehicle will not need a heat shield, and at this point, cameras and other vehicles will be able to check the situation by monitoring the environment and the ground.

But even with a parachute, the vehicle will continue to descend at a speed of 300 km per hour. So still very fast.

Therefore, the step that the nasa calls "crane maneuver" will begin. The part known as the upper protection of the capsule will also be separated and parachute to another place to prevent it from colliding with the main unit. From now on, 2 main parts of the vehicle will remain. The landing unit is the most vital part for landing at the top and the main mission vehicle at the bottom.

The engines of the landing unit will be activated and will first move away from the upper guard, which was separated a while ago, and then reduce the speed of the vehicle to a few kilometers per hour.

In the last step, the main unit will be lowered to the ground with cables with a crane maneuver at a height of 20 meters from the ground, and the wheels of the vehicle will touch the ground. After that, the cables will be cut, the landing unit will move away with the engines and will land somewhere and retire with the pride of doing his job.

This landing system was previously used on the Curiosity mission in 2012 and has worked. But of course we do not know. You have so many things that can go wrong. We hope he has no problems.

Now let's get to what this vehicle will do on Mars. Of course, when searching for a trace of life, NASA's biggest slogan was "Follow the water". For this reason, the Jezero crater, which takes its name from the word Jezero, which means "lake" in many Slavic languages, was chosen. This crater, with its many features, is very similar to the Salda lake in Burdur, which NASA constantly emphasizes, in every sense, it bears great traces that there was water once. Organic carbon will be the first thing to look for in the Jezero crater, which, when viewed from orbit, contains a delta where many rivers leave their remnants.

In this delta, it is thought that carbonate residues, which were revealed in studies carried out from the orbit, may contain remnants of organisms that may have lived in the past. One of these remains may be stromatolites. Stromatolites, too, are the First Multicellular Complex Creatures We Owe the Oxygen We Breathe, as we talked about in our article How life began in the world.

    Here, Perseverance will examine the remains in this very region with equipment set up to look for biological signatures and present these revolutionary evidence to us.

Of course, Perseverance is not alone. There is also a "helicopter" that attracts everyone's attention beyond all these details. Ingenuity. An impossible task that has never been tried before. He is the protagonist of the first controlled flight to take place outside of the earth in our solar system.

It is really an impossible task, because flying an object in an atmosphere that is not very thin and dense like Mars, and has a density of only one percent of our world, is a serious challenge.

Of course, engineers are ready for this challenge with a lot of tests, but they do not intend to fly this helicopter right away. About 2 months after landing. The mission will start with very short test flights and unfortunately, the helicopter march will not be able to travel through it as it is thought. With a small battery because it should be light, the helicopter will fly for a few minutes within a radius of just a few hundred meters, allowing us to learn more about the mars surface by taking pictures with cameras on a larger diameter.

But of course, as it will be the first mission of this scale, it will also pave the way for vehicles with much stronger equipment that can fly for much longer in the future.

This mission is, by the way, the third vehicle to reach Mars this month. Previously, the United Arab Emirates' satellite Hope and China's Tianwen 1 vehicle reached Mars. Hope will remain in orbit, while Tianwen's rover will land on Mars around May.

The last one is on the way, little left. You will understand that the traffic is getting heavy on Mars.

By the way, the Perseverance mission won't end there. Perseverance is naturally capable of only limited analyzes with equipment of a certain caliber. NASA is currently going to Mars with the European Space Agency to take samples collected by Perseverance and work on a mission to come back. NASA has agreed with Airbus for this and has already started planning this round trip. It looks like we will finally be able to smell the soil of Mars.

 

Finally, do not forget to witness this date no matter where you are from.

 

Resources:

https://mars.nasa.gov/mars2020/

https://www.bbc.com/turkce/56093145

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